Yun Yi's Stuff

Aside

Posted on: July 19, 2011

冉·阿让:衣衫褴褛中的高贵
—读雨果的“悲惨世界”

Cosette

Image via Wikipedia

终于读完了雨果的“悲惨世界”。事实上,我应该说读完“冉·阿让”的故事,因为我跳过了此书的很多段落,甚至跳过“滑铁卢”整整一大章。对于面对这大部头的巨著感到的困难,我本来是可以怪罪于我的英语阅读技能,但后来读了相关介绍之后,我意识到这雨果在这本书中不断地“跑题”和对细节描绘的冗长似乎的确是一个有争议的“问题”,甚至缺陷。

我个人不太喜欢文学中过度繁琐的细节描述,所以从写作技巧上谈我决不会说“悲惨世界”是我的最爱,但我必须承认,由于一个简单的事实,即:对人性的极度深刻的挖掘,对一个人可能经历和超越的人生最大的苦难和幸福的刻画,这本书,或者说冉·阿让的故事,不愧是人类文学史上最伟大的作品之一。此外,此书在对情节尤其是在对情感的描绘上非常优美,不得不让人感叹雨果不愧是最伟大的诗人之一。

小说的几个主要部分以主要人物的名字命名:芳汀,柯赛特,冉·阿让,等等。芳汀象征着“苦难”,柯赛特象征着“幸福”,冉·阿让象征着“超越”,或者灵魂的“救赎”。冉阿让和柯赛特之间的关系的描绘是本书的最精华的部分。冉·阿让对柯赛特的无条件的爱和柯赛特对冉·阿让的无条件的信任,牢固地结合了这世界上最纯洁的两个灵魂。柯赛特进入冉·阿让的生活是上帝给他的礼物,是从天国来临的天使,给以冉·阿让本来是情感荒芜的生命一个全新的意义。这就是为什么当冉阿让面临失去柯赛特的“危险”时,他感觉自己才真正面临人生的真正“灾难”,并在自己顽强的几十年的磨难中第一次哭泣。

冉·阿让承受了人间令人难以置信的苦难和不公正,但他从米里埃主教(“善”的象征)那里学会了“以德报怨”的超越精神。就像在书的开始主教得知了冉·阿让的经历后说到:如果冉·阿让可能超越自己的过去,变成一个全新的只付出“爱”的人,他的灵魂将超越世上所有其他人。而冉·阿让的确做到了这一点:尽管他曾经受到极度不公的待遇,尽管他也继续受到如此待遇,他却渐渐地从一个怨恨的人,变成了一个无条件地把“善”和“爱”带给社会和他人的人。

“悲惨世界”揭示了人类社会和制度的极其不公正(这一点很不幸是文明史以来的事实)。社会总是在法律的保护下,在“公正”的口号下实施罪恶。这种不公平非常集中地体现在冉·阿让身上。但是,通过冉·阿让的以德报怨精神,雨果在此宣扬着一种信仰:真正的审判来自人的灵魂和上帝。这就为什么冉·阿让从来没有真正试图摆脱沙威警长的追逐(沙威警长是社会和制度的不公正的象征)的原因;也是在书的最后沙威警长自杀的原因;更是冉·阿让他的生命的临终时刻得到了他的终极幸福的原因:他得到了柯赛特和马里奥的全部的爱。所以冉·阿让最后说到:上帝是美好的。

一位网上的朋友说,“悲惨世界”的全部意义都在于“宽恕”二字。对此我完全同意,虽然我认为冉·阿让一生没有做任何事情需要被宽恕。他受法律制裁的“越轨”行为根本谈不上真正的犯罪,但在书中冉·阿让总是处在一种忏悔的情绪中。之所以如此,我想雨果是想夸大不公正的效果,强调在上帝眼中我们都是“罪人”的原罪感。我个人并不完全认可基督教意义上的“原罪”,但此书所传达的“善”与“爱”的精神却是意义深远的:“爱”将最终融化“​​恨”。

在此我还想贴别强调,虽然冉·阿让在离开米里埃神父后一直生活在强烈的忏悔感之中,生活在一种自觉不配他人的感受中,并且不停地寻找他人和“上帝”的原谅,但在我看来,冉·阿让和书中真正的两个肮脏灵魂-特纳蒂埃夫妇且然不同的事,他是从一开始就是一个善良的人,他的灵魂从一开始就是青白的,从一开始就是高贵的,他配得上人间的最大幸福。

几十年前我非常喜欢雨果,读了他其他四部长篇小说,每一部我都非常喜欢。我不记得当时究竟是什么原因让我没有选择读这本书。现在看来,即使当时读,也不会完全读懂。我认为,虽然此书有很多不可忽视的“技术”缺陷,但它仍然当之无愧地是文学史上的一部关于人性的宏篇传奇。冉·阿让是一幅关于高贵灵魂的精致的“肖像”,装在“苦难”的画框中。也许,正因为这样的对比,冉·阿让的面孔才显得更加光彩夺目?

————————————-

Jean Valjean: A Gracious Soul Dwells in Darkness

A few days ago I finished reading “Les Miserables”. Finally! Or I should say, I finished reading “Jean Valjean”, because I jumped so many passages even the whole chapter of “Waterloo”. I blamed my poor English reading skill for feeling difficulty in reading all pages of this book. However after I read instruction of the book I realized the digressions of this book seems to be an issue.

I must state openly that I do not usually enjoy the excessiveness on description, or writing endlessly on small details, so I cannot say this is my favorite book in terms of writing skill (even though I had read 4 Yuguo’s other novels when I was in high school and highly enjoy every one of them), but, I must say, the story of this book – or story of Jean Valjean – deserves to be remembered as one of the greatest stories ever created, for the fact that it delves into such a depth of human nature: the greatest misery and greatest happiness a man/woman can ever experience and ever transcend. Also, the story was extremely beautifully done. Yugo indeed was one of greatest poets.
I like how Yugo named each part of the book: Fantine, Cossette, Jean Valjean, etc. Fantine is an icon of misery, Cossette an icon of happiness, Jean Valjean an icon of salvation, . The relationship between Valjean and Cossette is beautifully portrayed: the immense affection from Valjean and the unconditional trust from Cossette, both made the most innocent bound of two souls. Cossette’s entering Jean Valjean’s life is meant to be a gift from God, an Angel from Heaven. That’s why when Valjean faces the “danger” of losing her, he feels the real peril of his life has just come – a peril greater than all of those he experienced before. That’s how for the first time in his life Jean Valjean crys by himself.
Jean Valjean endured incredible hardship and injustice, yet he learned to pay back with the unconditional kindness. As the bishop pointed at the early stage of the story, if Valjean could surpass his past, turn himself into a new person who only love, he would be above all of other people. And that’s what Jean Valjean turns out: a person who gives out kindness even though he has received and continues to receives injustice from society.
In this book we could see that human society and social system are full of injustice, which is so unfortunately true since so called “civilization” started. This is utmost unfair to people like Jean Valjean. However, it is author’s belief that there is a greater justice: the judgement by God, which eventually handle reward or punishment. That’s how Valjean never really tried to escape from Javert’s chasing (Javert is an icon of unjust society); that’s how at the end of book Javert commits suicide; that how Valjean has his final reward: true love from Cossette and Marius.
A friend (Nothingprofound) said this whole book is all about “forgiveness”. I agree totally, even though I think Jean Valjean has done nothing that need to be forgiven. What he is punished by law are far away from crime, yet Yugo made him repent all the time because (I think) Yugo wanted to exaggerate the injustice. I don’t really “buy” this sense of “sin”, or “guilty”, however I do appreciate and deeply moved by the sense of LOVE this book conveys: love melts hatred.
I also must state this, even though Jean Valjean constantly lived in repentance, constantly felt undeserved to Cossette’s love, endlessly had that strong sense of looking for forgiveness, in my eye, unlike those filthy Thenardiers, his soul was always clean, he deserved every bit of happiness he found, and he was gracious from the very beginning.
I was big fan of Yugo whan I was young. I do not remember what was the reason I did not choose to read this book back then. After all these years, I am glad I finally read it. Les Miserables is legendary, regardless its “visible” flaws, and it is the most gracious “portrait” of the most gracious soul (Jean Valjean), though framed with the darkest color on this earth. Isn’t true that by this contrast,  the “face” of Jean Valjean looks even more radiant?

 

 

Enhanced by Zemanta

冉·阿让:衣衫褴褛中的高贵-读雨果的“悲惨世界”

Advertisements

4 Responses to "冉·阿让:衣衫褴褛中的高贵-读雨果的“悲惨世界”"

佩服你的耐心,能读今天的法国人都不怎么读的老古典小说。令我有点心动,也找来《悲惨世界》读读。但想想,还是有些害怕。太正经了。

一个问题,为什么每篇文章的后面,都写篇英文?难道有英美读者来访?

谢谢访评!
我没有耐心,所以才撑竿跳过了那么多章节。你如果读的话,建议只读围绕几个主人公的情节就行了。跳过那些章节,一样可以读下去。不过当然看你自己了。雨果这部书不“正经”,而是对人性非常严肃的分析。是个思想家的态度。你评“蝴蝶梦”的言辞“罪犯不是坏人”用在这里就很妥当。
“悲惨世界”是部永恒的杰作,它的意义不会因为时间的变迁而过时。不然为何百老汇的歌舞剧“悲惨世界”这么百演不衰?

回答你的问题,之所以后面有英文,是因为这些文章我都是先用英文写的,再翻译成(包括修改)中文的。这些英文都在我的英文博客上,之所以在这里还是存下来,是怕那天突然英文博客不工作了后不至于损失所有的文章。

没想到你还有英文博客,祝贺!华夏文摘作者里能用外文写作的,少而又少。外文水平不够是一个原因,文章水平不够是更重要的原因。我常看比利时杂志,也看些法国杂志。经常会感叹:人家外国杂志里的文章水平多高呀!相比之下,华夏文摘简直就是幼儿园。

谢谢鼓励!其实我的英文和中文比还是差很多,但这几篇书评正好都是先写的英文。
个人体会,英文的表达能力比中文强,写起来逻辑思路更清晰。所以我在读完了这些英文书后总喜欢先用英文。

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Blog Stats

  • 10,228 hits

Follow Yun Yi's Stuff on WordPress.com

Follow me on Twitter

© 2003 – 2014 Yun Yi

Protected by Copyscape Online Plagiarism Detector
PHILOSOPHY

Philosophy Blog Dedicated to Critical and Reflective Thinking

Be Like Water

Music, Film and Life

~ L to the Aura ~

sustainability. compassion. inspiration.

The Green World

the dilemmas of modern times

hessianwithteeth

This site is all about ideas

The Magician's Home

A house filled with thrills, mysteries and heart-wrenching secrets that will forever change the course of June Corpelle's life

Success Inspirers World

International Friends Forum - Springboard To Great Heights

Credit Continue

Samantha Clarke

The Road

Obedience is Better Than Sacrifice

Audio SeXXX

Eargasms found here!

Natalie Breuer

Natalie. Writer. Photographer. Etc.

The Dystopian Nation of City-State

A cruel, futuristic vision created by science fiction authors James Courtney and Kaisy Wilkerson-Mills. ©2013-2016. All Rights Reserved. All writings available through Amazon.

KURT★BRINDLEY

WRITER★EDITER★PRODUCER★CONSULTANT

PROJECT: A Journal for Project Management

Project is a journal for project managers to express their ideas and share their work through writing, conversation, design and image

Libretto

Expression of Thought through Words

Jesus Christ for Muslims Pakistan

Inviting Muslims To The Kingdom of Christ

Chris Brake Show Podcast

LIVE! Every Wednesday @ 8pm Eastern / 7pm Central on StrangeLabel.com

criticaldispatches.com/

Follow me on Twitter and Instagram @RichyDispatch

justbadtiming

life as i know it

Eye-Dancers

A site devoted to the Young Adult sci-fi/fantasy novel The Eye-Dancers

%d bloggers like this: